Be Aware – Lesson 5

This lesson is based on the Real Conversation: A Career in Medical Research.

Download the pdf for this lesson.

[audio:medical research.mp3]
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Section A – Grammar Explanations with Examples

Sometimes when you are listening to something in English, you are able to understand it, but you are not able to say it. You are not able to reproduce what you hear with correct grammar. It is important to be aware of grammar and of the correct way to use words. It helps you to communicate more clearly. This saves time and helps to prevent misunderstandings.

Words have many nuances and shades of meaning. Language is vital. Understanding is the basis of everything.

Understanding is the solution to every problem. We can reach understanding by communicating clearly and by understanding other people. We can use language to help us do this.

Let’s look at a sequence. It is a group of sentences. They are all in ‘past simple tense’.

Sequence:

She finished high school.
She went to university.
She studied education.
She did a bachelor of education (She did a B.E.).
She did her undergraduate degree.
She did her teaching degree.
She worked in a high school.
She went traveling.
She traveled through Asia.
She ended up in China.
She worked in a language school.
It was in Shanghai.
It was exciting.
She moved to Europe.
She did her master’s there.
She took classes in French.
She decided to move back to Asia.
She took the bus.
She went through Istanbul and Pakistan.
She got back to China.
She started working in a research laboratory.
She was working in Guang Zho.

Now look at the verbs:

finished
went
studied
did
did
did
worked in
went raveling
traveled through
ended up in
worked in
was
was
moved to
did
took classes in
decided to move back to
took
went through
got back to
started working in
was working in

These are verb phrases. Sometimes they are single words. Sometimes they are a verb plus a preposition. Sometimes they are a verb plus a noun and a couple of prepositions. It is good to remember verb phrases rather than simple verbs. It will enable you to speak more quickly. When you speak to a native speaker, you should not speak too slowly or he or she will become impatient. Learning ‘verb phrases’ instead of  ‘simple verbs’ will help you to speak more quickly and more naturally.

As I said above, these sentences are all in ‘past simple tense’. It is important to use this tense correctly. Chinese and Thai do not have a past simple tense. Does your language have a past simple tense? Write and tell us in the comments section at the bottom of this page.

Do you use past simple tense to tell stories in your language? French and German do not use it. They use the ‘present perfect tense’ to tell stories. They are different from English.

Let’s look at the present forms of the sequence of verb phrases:

finishes
goes
studies
does
does
does
works in
goes traveling
ends up in
works in
is
is
moves to
does
takes classes in
decided to move back to
takes
goes through
gets back to
starts working in
is working in

Did you notice that the first verb conjugates? It agrees with the pronoun ‘she’ from the sentences above. Do you remember what conjugation is? If you do not, go back to Be Aware – Lesson One. Think about conjugation. Think about what it is. The verb agrees with the pronoun.

It is possible to speak like this. Usually we tell stories in the past simple tense in English, but sometimes we use the present simple tense. We use the present simple tense to give a feeling of immediacy and excitement.

As I said above some languages do not have conjugation. Thai and Chinese speakers of English may speak like this:

She finish high school.
She go to university.
She study education.
She do a bachelor of education. (She did a B.E.)
She do her undergraduate degree.
She do her teaching degree.
She work in a high school.
She go traveling.
She travel through Asia.
She end up in China.
She work in a language school.
It is in Shanghai.
It is exciting.
She move to Europe.
She do her master’s there.
She take classes in French.
She decide to move back to Asia.
She take the bus.
She go through Istanbul and Pakistan.
She get back to China.
She start working in a research laboratory.
She is working in Guang Zho.

It is ok to talk like this. If you want to communicate with somebody but you do not have a big vocabulary you can do it. You can talk like this. You can “get away with it.” People will understand you.

In formal and academic situations it is not normal to speak like this. It is inaccurate. Grammatically speaking, it is wrong for two reasons.

One reason is tense. The sentences should be in past simple tense.

The other reason is conjugation. If the sentences are in present simple tense, the verb must agree with the pronoun ‘she’. That means the verb needs an ‘s’.

Only the first verb needs an ‘s’. Remember in a verb phrase like ‘goes traveling’ or ‘starts working’, which has two verbs, only the first verb conjugates. Only the first verb agrees with the pronoun (subject).

Let’s look at another grammar point:

is called
is named

Generally these two phrases have the same meaning but the first one is more common. They are both in passive voice.

Let’s look at another one. These words are all in the same ‘field of meaning’. They are all about the same topic:

research institute
institute
academy
think tank
research lab
research laboratory

They are general words. They describe a place where you do research. They are places where people do research and try to solve problems. Have you ever worked in a research institute? Do you work in one now? Write and tell us below.

We use the verb ‘work’ with different prepositions:

work on
work in
work at
work for
work with

Look at these examples:

I am working on a book. (project)
I work in the city. (place)
I work at a factory. (place)
I work for a Japanese company. (company)
I work with people from many different countries. (people)

Look at these words:

the metabolism of cholesterol
the capital of China
the top of the mountain

They are all noun phrases. If you find a difficult or technical noun phrase like ‘the metabolism of cholesterol’ when you are reading or listening, you should not worry. You know it is a thing or a process. That is enough. It is just a detail. There is no need to give up. Sometimes if we read or listen to a technical text, we ‘lose heart’ because there are technical words we do not know.

Do not be ‘disheartened’. Keep going. Press on. Get to the end of the text. Finish what you are doing. You can come back and check vocabulary details later.

how the body breaks it down
how it is broken down by the body
how it is broken down
how it is broken up
how it is broken up by the body
how the body breaks it up

They all have roughly the same meaning. Sometimes opposites like ‘up’ and ‘down’ or ‘in’ and ‘out’ have the same meaning. Here is another example:

fill it in
fill it out
fill this form in
fill this form out
fill this application form in
fill this application form out

Look at these relative clauses:

how it is transported
where it is transported to
where it is transported from
by what means it is transported
how fast it is transported

Are you able to understand them all? Use your dictionary if you have any problems.

A Clutter of Future Tenses:

Look at these thirteen verb phrases:

was looking at
were looking at
am looking at
is looking at
are looking at
will look at
will be looking at
am going to look at
is going to look at
are going to look at
am going to be looking at
is going to be looking at
are going to be looking at

There are a lot of them. There are many possibilities. Are you confused? Do not be confused. Relax. Take it easy. It is not so difficult. Let us look at them in groups.

Past Tense:

was looking at
were looking at

Present Tense:

am looking at
is looking at
are looking at

Future Tense:

will look at
will be looking at
am going to look at
is going to look at
are going to look at
am going to be looking at
is going to be looking at
are going to be looking at

Do not be confused by the large number of future tenses in English. Do not be confused by the proliferation of future tenses in the English language. Do not be confused by the “clutter” of future tenses in English.

They all mean roughly the same thing (future as opposed to past or present). There are fine details. There are subtleties. You will learn them eventually. Go slowly. Do not stress out. Read these notes carefully. You will understand. Here is a breakdown of the future tenses in English:

Present Continuous with Future Meaning (informal):

I am going home in a few minutes.
He is moving to London next year.
They are leaving Mecca tomorrow.

“Will” as Spontaneous Future:

What are you doing tonight?
I don’t know……I know! I will watch a movie!

“Going to” as Planned Future:

I am going to improve my English then I am going to study at an American university.

Note that the plan was made before the moment of speaking. A spontaneous decision would be expressed like this:

I will improve my English then I will study at an American university.

Future Continuous with “Will”:

I will be looking at that next week.

It is the same as “I will look at that next week” but it stresses the ongoing or continuous nature of ‘looking at’ rather than the simple action ‘look at’ as part of a sequence.

Do not stress out over this small difference. It is not so important. It is no big deal. Just be aware of the two forms:

I will go there soon.
I will be going there soon.

I will do it soon.
I will be doing it soon.

I will see him tomorrow.
I will be seeing him tomorrow.

Future Continuous with “Going to”:

I am going to be seeing him tomorrow.

This one is also about the same as “I am going to see him tomorrow.” Again the continuous or ongoing nature of the action (the length of the action) is stressed over the action’s position in a sequence.

You should be able to recognize these forms and use them correctly. Do not worry about which one to use. Listen to other people. Listen to the one they use. It is not productive to worry about which one to use. It really does not matter. It really does not matter at all. As time passes, you will become more fluent and eventually you will naturally choose the same patterns as a native speaker.

In order to “improve your English” or “maintain your English” (keep your English up), it is important to belong to a community of speakers. Can you find somebody in your community who speaks English? Do you know somebody who can speak a little English? It does not have to be a native speaker. To progress and grow and develop you have to belong to a community.

Let’s move on to some vocabulary. Look at these words:

diet
protein
carbohydrate
fat
starch
mineral
vitamin
nutrient

Nutrition is important. Do you eat well? Do you eat all the food groups? Are you vegetarian? Does your body get enough nutrients without meat? Where do you get protein? Write and tell me about your experience of vegetarianism. Write and tell us about your experience of being vegetarian.  Leave a comment below.

Look at the next group of phrases:

that determines how
that decides how
that controls how

They have roughly the same meaning.

The ones below are slightly different:

that determines when
that determines what
that determines if

These phrases are in the passive. they are useful in scientific and technical English:

how it is modified
how it is delivered
how it is returned
how it is selected
how it is reproduced
how it is protected
how it is nurtured

If you want to talk about the human body and medicine and internal organs, you will need to know these words:

liver
kidneys
heart
lungs
anatomy
heart
spleen
stomach
intestine
bowel
bladder
gall bladder
appendix
lungs
prostate gland
genitals
testicles
penis
vagina
uterus (womb)
fallopian tubes
ovaries

Do a drawing that shows where these parts are on the human body.

These verb phrases are easy to understand, right?

am working on that
is working on that
are working on that
were working on that
was working on that
will be working on that

You can divide them up into:

Past Continuous Tense:

was working on that
were working on that

Present Continuous Tense:

am working on that
is working on that
are working on that

Future Continuous Tense:

will be working on that

As mentioned before, the continuous tenses emphasize the “ongoing” or “continuous” nature of an action. When we use them, the stress on the action is on the length of it. We use the simple tense more to show a sequence:

Past Simple Tense:

worked on that
finished it
started another project

Present Simple Tense:

work on that
finish it
start another project

Future Simple Tense:

will work on that
will finish it
will start another task

These phrases (below) are extremely frequent in the English language. You should be able to say they quickly, easily and automatically. They should “roll off your tongue.”

wanted to have a break
wanted to have a meal
wanted to have a holiday
wanted to have something to eat
wanted to have something to drink
wanted to have a look around

Look at these ones too:

wanted to go
wanted to make
wanted to eat
wanted to drink
wanted to stay
wanted to work
wanted to live
wanted to be
wanted to have
wanted to come
wanted to get
wanted to take
wanted to give

The opposites are:

didn’t want to go
didn’t want to make
didn’t want to eat
didn’t want to drink
didn’t want to stay
didn’t want to work
didn’t want to live
didn’t want to be
didn’t want to have
didn’t want to come
didn’t want to get
didn’t want to take
didn’t want to give

These combinations of verbs are used very frequently in conversations with native speakers. They occur very often. You should be able to say them quickly and easily. They should roll off your tongue.

Look at these verb pairs:

went traveling
traveled through

went hiking
hiked up into

went walking
walked to

went running
ran across

went shopping
bought

Notice that the first four pairs are from the same word family. The last one is different. Language is not regular. It is full of irregularities and inconsistencies. Look at these examples of the above phrases:

I finished school then I went travelling and travelled through Europe.
I finished lunch then I went hiking and hiked up into the hills
I finished resting then I went walking and walked to the other side of town.
I finished working then I went running and ran right across town.
I finished work then I went shopping and bought a new jacket.

Look at these phrases from the world of academia. These phrases are in the passive voice:

seminars are given
lectures are given
tutorials are given
lessons are given (or “lessons are taught”)
classes are given (or “classes are taught”)

We also often hear:

Classes are attended.
Classes are skipped.
Classes are missed.

A ‘class’ is a general word. It can mean ‘The class (lesson, program, content) that the teacher teaches’ or ‘the people in the class’.

A ‘lesson’ is a class, but it does not refer to the people in the class. It refers to the class as a unit on a timetable (schedule) or a unit of content. Look at these examples:

I have three classes (lessons) on Tuesday.
My first class is my favourite.
It is a really interesting class.
The teacher gives really interesting lessons.
There are three foreign students in my class.

A lecture is usually attended by a large group of people and one person dominates the stage. Look at these examples:

I attended a lecture last night.

A tutorial is usually for a smaller group of students. They sit down and discuss the class with the tutor. Look at this example:

I had a tutorial with the new tutor in the English Department last night.

A seminar is a course with a smaller number of students in it. Some times we say ‘seminar class’.

Look at these:

for like five years
for five years

The two sentences have about the same meaning. ‘Like’ is a pause word that does not really mean anything. Do not confuse it with:

I like learning languages. (verb)
He looks like my brother. (preposition)

Look at these ones:

for almost five years
for less than five years
for over five years
for more than five years
for about five years
for approximately five years
for around five years
for round five years

You have seen these before. You will come across them extremely often. The last four phrases have almost exactly the same meaning:

for about five years
for approximately five years
for around five years
for round five years

The two above that have the same meaning:

for over five years
for more than five years

Their opposite is:

for less than five years

Are you sure of the meaning of ‘for almost five years’? It means ‘for nearly five years’ or ‘for not quite five years’.

We have seen this group before. They have the same meaning.

do you speak
are you able to speak
can you speak

When we talk about our ability in a language we use these phrases:

I can understand a bit.
I can do basic things.
I can do some basic things.
I can have a basic conversation.
I can get by.

We were just reading about this type of verb combination. Look at it again:

wanted to practice
wanted to know
wanted to learn
wanted to hear
wanted to go to
wanted to ask about

Note that first verb (wanted) conjugates. It “agrees” in ‘number’ and ‘tense’ with the ‘subject’ of the sentence. The second verb does not change. It is called, ‘the infinitive’.

Do not confuse these words:

infinitive
infinity
infinite

Do you believe in infinity? Do you think the universe is infinite? Write and tell us by leaving a comment below.

Now look at these verb combinations:

decided to move to
decided to move back to
decided to go to
decided to return to
decided to go back to
decided to leave

Look at these ones:

went to
went through
went round
went around
went over
went along

Here are examples of usage:

I went to eastern Europe.
I went through the Slovak Republic.
I went round the Ukraine.
I went around Poland too.
I went over the Baltic Sea.
I went along the border of Finland.

Try these:

got back to Russia
arrived in Russia
arrived back in Russia

They mean about the same. There is a subtle difference. the preposition ‘back’ is the key. You cannot say “I back to Russia.” ‘Back’ is not a verb in this case.

A field can mean a place where cows graze OR an area of research or work. These combinations are common:

a different field
a very different field
the same field
a similar field
a related field
an unrelated field

Look at these different types of diseases:

blood diseases
liver diseases
heart diseases
kidney diseases
skin diseases
venereal diseases

Look at these words too:

serious diseases
common diseases
widespread diseases
rare diseases
infectious diseases
imaginary diseases
dangerous diseases

Have you ever had a serious disease? Have you ever had a rare disease? Write and tell us below.

These nouns have similar meanings:

disease
illness
sickness
malady (less common)

These adjectives has similar meanings:

sick
ill
diseased (less common)

These verb phrases (‘to’ means it is the infinitive) have similar meanings:

to be sick
to be ill
to have a disease

Look at these words from the world of medicine and biology:

blood cells
stem cells
plant cells
animal cells
human cells
the blood circulation system
the blood circulatory system

Make sure you understand these words:

circle (a geometric figure)(a noun)
circular (an adjective)
circulation (the process of moving around)
cycle (something which happens again and again)

Look at these verb phrases:

was researching
were researching
will be researching
am researching
is researching
are researching

You can break the phrases up like this:

Past Continuous:

was researching
were researching

Present:

am researching
is researching
are researching

Future Continuous:

will be researching

You can also say ‘will research’. It has about the same meaning.

These words mean ‘not allowed’:

illegal (prohibited by law)
prohibited (not allowed)
forbidden (not allowed) (used by teachers with children)
not allowed (general)

Look at these phrases:

our whole immune system
most of our immune system
part of our immune system

your whole immune system
most of your immune system
part of your immune system

my whole immune system
most of my immune system
part of my immune system

Try these pairs of opposites:

adult
embryonic

active
dormant

an active state
a dormant state

active
quiescent (This is a new word for me. It is a technical scientific word)

Look at these synonyms:

go into division
divide
break up
separate

Try these ones:

was trying to understand
was trying to figure out
was trying to work out

Look at these relative clauses:

what signals they get
what signals they receive
what signals they send
what signals they transmit
what signals they give off
what signals they make

These two have the same meaning:

I just published
I recently published

There are often two ways to say something: in the active and in the passive:

I published the work from that.
The work from that was published.

This works with some verbs. It does not work with all verbs in all situations. You have to learn things step by step and learn common phrases rather than abstract grammatical possibilities which are seldom used.

Look at his one:

I decided to travel
It was decided that I travel.

Both are possible but the situation is very different. In the second sentence ‘the traveller’ does not control his or her life. Perhaps the speaker was a young person or an employee.

When we do a university course, there are a lot of words we use to talk about types of courses:

primary education (elementary school 5-12)
secondary education (high school) (13 17)
tertiary education (university level) (18 up)

The names of educational qualifications vary from country to country. The Australian system is something like this:

a certificate (a short course, perhaps only a month)

a diploma( a short course of one or two years)

a degree (a general term for any university qualification)

an undergraduate degree (a first degree, usually three years)

a bachelor’s degree (as above))

an honours degree (usually an extra year on a bachelor’s degree and with a high standard of achievement)

a post graduate diploma (a short training course or degree which is done after an initial undergraduate degree)

a Masters degree (a second or higher degree)

a doctorate or PhD (the highest level)

post-doctoral research (research which you do after you finish your PhD)

How does the education system work in your country? Write and tell us by leaving a comment below.

Soon you will hear a real conversation with an Australian woman. She has been to many countries. Many people from Australia travel a lot. Do people from your country travel a lot? Write and tell us. Write and tell us where you want to travel to.



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Section B: Listening Activities

Now listen to the whole conversation without the transcript. While you are listening go through this list and mark the expression you hear. Have fun!

[audio:medical research.mp3]

finished
went
studied
did
worked in
worked for
were working
went traveling
travelled through
ended up in
worked at
was
was
moved to
did
decided to move back to
took
went through
got back to
started
was
was researching
was trying to figure out
was
published
decided to travel

Listen again and mark the phrase you hear:

studied science
studied arts and humanities

a bachelor of science
a bachelor of medicine
a bachelor of law
a bachelor of engineering

a liver disease research institute
a cancer research institute
a heart disease research institute

worked at
worked on
worked in

worked through
worked with
worked for

the structure of cells in the blood
the metabolism of cholesterol in the body
the monitoring of bacteria in the stomach
the monitoring of temperature in the body

how it is broken down by the body
how it is broken down
how the body breaks it down
how it is broken up
how it is broken up by the body
how the body breaks it up

where it is transported to
where it is transported from
how it is transported
by what means it is transported
how fast it is transported

is looking at
are looking at
will look at
will be looking at
am going to look at
was looking at
were looking at
am looking at
is going to look at
are going to look at
am going to be looking at
is going to be looking at
are going to be looking at

hat determines when
that determines what
that determines if
that determines how
that decides how
that controls how

how it is modified
how it is delivered
how it is returned
how it is selected
how it is reproduced
how it is protected
how it is nurtured

am working on that
is working on that
are working on that
were working on that
was working on that
will be working on that

wanted to have a meal
wanted to have a break
wanted to have a holiday
wanted to have something to eat
wanted to have something to drink
wanted to have a look around

went running and ran through
went hiking and hiked through
went traveling and traveled through
went walking and walked to

lessons are taught
classes are taught
seminars are given
lectures are given
tutorials are given
lessons are given
classes are given

for five years
for like five years

do you speak Finnish
are you able to speak Finnish
can you speak Finnish

wanted to hear
wanted to know
wanted to learn
wanted to practise
wanted to go to
wanted to ask about

decided to move to
decided to move back to
decided to go to
decided to return to
decided to go back to
decided to leave

went to
went through
went round
went around
went over
went along

got back to Melbourne
arrived in Melbourne
arrived back in Melbourne

in a different field
in a very different field
in the same field
in a similar field
in a related field
in an unrelated field

kidney diseases
widespread diseases
rare diseases
infectious diseases
imaginary diseases
skin diseases
venereal diseases
serious diseases
blood diseases
liver diseases
heart diseases
common diseases
dangerous diseases

was researching
were researching
will be researching
am researching
is researching
are researching

animal cells
plant cells
stem cells
blood cells
human cells

forbidden
not allowed
illegal
prohibited

part of our immune system
your whole immune system
most of your immune system
our whole immune system
most of our immune system
part of your immune system
my whole immune system
most of my immune system
part of my immune system

what signals they transmit
what signals they receive
what signals they send
what signals they get
what signals they give off
what signals they make

I published the work from that.
The work from that was published.

I decided to travel
It was decided that I travel.

To see the entire transcript, visit this page: A Career in Medical Research.

This is the end of Lesson 5. This is also the last lesson of Be Aware. What do you think? Please leave us a comment below.

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  122. dwi says:

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    thanks alot for the lessons

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  124. venkatesh says:

    thank you so much for helping to learn English

  125. Atto says:

    I’m wondering why the audio not clear always has a back noise.. Thanks a lot for these helpfull lessons.. Please keep on sending us a new lessons.. Our Arabic language have present, past and future tenses and passive voice tense as well.. I’d like to travel to Malysia to see my relatives there..

  126. abiy says:

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  128. Jon says:

    Hi Mark & Aaron, thank you very much for the lesson, it’s work very good to me.
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    Regard.

  129. Arma says:

    hi,dear teachers,your lessons especially the last one helped me a lot,i like them much.I try to listen carefully in order to improve my pronounciation.You,know,I noticed that while asking questions the man in the dialogue was not forming interrogative sentences.I mean isn’t it necessary to keep all grammar rules while one is speaking or we shouldn’t pay attention to such things?Ok,thanks once more ,waiting for your lessons.

  130. Rozanna says:

    Hi, Mark and Aaron.
    I want to thanke you for ur useful lessons. It’s very entertaing and totally different. I loved it.
    BUT Please donot say that this is the end or u will minimize the lessons. all people in here want more and i want more:). so, if u could creat more and more of BE AWARE LESSONS that’s will be GREAT and we will be GRATEFULL.
    MANY THANKS FOR MARK AND AARON,,,, love ya 🙂

  131. ILAHI BAKSH says:

    The lesson is usefull . I got a lot of teaching materils to interact with my students in the class room.Hope they will be certainly benefited. Thank you so much for your efforts to give us a good lesson.

  132. Raja says:

    Hi , thanks alot , I improve my english languge through your site , you know i get my degree in enlisg languge translation but my problem when i speakin or writing english so i hope to improve my languge by your site &lessons .

  133. mohammed says:

    it is very good
    really i am very happy
    thank you so much

  134. menhaj says:

    thank u very much for sending lessons thanks alot.

  135. Piroska says:

    Hello Mark and Aaron,

    Your Be Aware lessons are great.The best among the other online lessons.
    Very good collection of the English expressions with useful words.
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    Thank you for your work.Hopefully you will continue these lessons in
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    Piroska

  136. Asril says:

    Hi,
    The lesson is useful for improving my English capability,but in fact I really need is listening THE SPEAKING or the daily life conversation.Thanks so much

  137. joby says:

    thanks for your awesome lessons

  138. Jamie says:

    Wow,great lesson guys,i’m impressed,keep up the good work,i’m really enjoying the real conversations,it has really helped me improve my english..i commend you guys for that..

  139. Jean Camille says:

    In my country we have: two passed tense, like past perfect and past simple tense . Example: past perfect tense,I was living in tokio /or I was traveling from Spain to Canada. simple past tense:I were very sick last month/I played tennis two ago/ I went to see a friend of my last saturday Nb.we use these past tense to tell story or to say something that happened some days before an other happened

  140. ahmed says:

    I thank you for your supporting to me to improve my English and classified many tenses and grammar,I’m thank you again because you are very experienced how to teach and how to follow the learns mind and their position of weakness.So I hope that many learns and me will get immense advantages from these lessons.Especially me,I will read these lessons of BE AWARE more and carefully to memorize,practice and write down more.if I do like this,I will improve my English and my skills of the language and I will remember you and your effort. thank you very much and nice to get from other lessons and continue our contact through internet esp.your website. best regards

  141. madyen says:

    u are great teacher

  142. Freddy says:

    Hi Mark
    Congratulations for the English lesson, it is very important for the experience in the english idiom. I life in Equator, here is very important know and speak this languaje in the University and the work

    Thank you so much…

  143. noniko says:

    hello thanks help me
    i am studying these lessons
    but i know a little english so i cant write
    sorry

  144. somayeh says:

    Hello dear Mark and Aaron
    Thank you very much for your perfectlesson. would you please keep going on this kind of teaching . good luck

  145. Tsigereda Wasihun says:

    Hi Mark and Aaron
    I would like to Introduce my self. I was born in Ethiopa and my mother tang is Amharic. I didn’t speek English perfectly. I understand more. so I’m very interesting to speek English. Please you help me more.
    I have recevied 1-5 English conversetion lessons. But I’m very let for the comment. I thank you for your help. The lessons are very good. Please continou.
    Have a naice time.

  146. Rivo says:

    Dear Authors,
    You have a lot of experiences in teaching a practical and to-do-point English language: giving a bunch of samples for similar meaning, stressing the common sample (e.g. “it’s called” is more common than “it’s named” in particular context), comparing while breaking up the tenses patterns, and so on.

    In Indonesia, we don’t tense the verb. We are only dependent on adverb of time so that sometimes the opposite speaker get confused and usually confirming with a question like “uhm… yesterday?” or “in the morning?”. We are using simple present and present continuous pattern, and adverb of time to tense them.
    :-).
    Actually, as I have been experiencing English in my own pace (somehow auto-didactically), I only need to remember which word(s) go with which words, grammars, etc. I think grammar is one of the important aspects to know. Grammar for me is not only about tense but many things especially phrases. My target will be that even though I’m not a native speaker, hopefully someday I will feel what they (you) feel when saying something. Actually, I don’t know exactly whether what I’m writing now is a common style. :-). The only thing I do while writing is looking up a dictionary in order to confirm the usage of my words. Certainly, I use a learner’s dictionary (internet is faster and accessible anywhere) which gives more common examples for the word I am going to use. I use Google translator as a trusted resource that translate even a set of words from Indonesian to English, or vice versa.

    I believe that they who are taking an English course with native speaker included are getting more experience than me. But at least now I know what the course means to me. In the past I hated English, was scary of English environment (until now :-), but just a little scary of “native” speaker 😀 ). But now, I love it very much, and I know WHY.

    Thanks Authors, you make me aware of English from many views.

    Yours sincerely

  147. EMAN GWDA says:

    HI.
    THANKS A LOT YES THESE LESSONS WERE VERY IMPORTANT FOR ME
    EMAN

  148. Balasaheb says:

    I am Indian.Thank you very much for your support. My practice is very poor please tell me, What can I do

  149. Bedoor Al Azawi says:

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  150. Bandu Maran Roi San says:

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  151. Ahmad Hamedi says:

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  152. algrbua says:

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    Best regards

  156. Roberto says:

    I want to say… Really Thanks a lot, This course is the best and I’m quite intersted, I have not words for expressing my gratitude. My pleasure.

    Sincerely Yours

  157. ABDULRAHMAN riyad says:

    Thanks for you this is good subject

    thanks

  158. Josenildo says:

    Very good…tyvm

  159. yaya says:

    Thanks to both of you, cz helping us in order to improve ourselves english speaking. Thus, providing us with a good website/material. I’ve gained a lot lately, especially in knowledge. Once again, I want to thank to both of you. Your hardwork and willing to spend your time by reply our comment, you (Aaron and Mark)are such good teachers. May god bless you and your family. Hope oneday, I could speak directly with both of you.

    Have a nice day! 😉

  160. xyz_x says:

    coudl you send me lesson again

  161. xyz_x says:

    thanks alot

  162. imrankhan says:

    Hi, how are you today Aaron.
    Thank you for send me lesson. This is a good lesson and you are doing work heard for us. daily i am reading your lesson very good lessons now i am going able understand, and i am very thakful to aj hoke he gave me your webiste. thank you very much. have a good day,

  163. khaled says:

    very good lesson
    perfect
    so nice teacher

  164. Valere BERAMBAYE says:

    Dear Aaron,
    Dear Mark,

    Excuse me if I do not have enough times to thank you earlier about your work. I regret very mush that it’s already finished. However, you give me the way to take in order to develop my level in English. I’ll never forget you.

    Take care!

  165. Sirithorn says:

    Dear Aaron,
    Dear Mark,

    I am Thailand.Thank you very much for your support everything. I am try reading and speaking every day.But I am not sure conversation with our friends. I hope it’s help me to improve my English with your method.
    Thank you very much for your support alway.

  166. Sirithorn says:

    Dear Aaron,
    Dear Mark,

    I am Thailand.Thank you very much for your support everything. I am try reading and listening every day.But I am not sure conversation with our friends. I hope it’s help me to improve my E

  167. shery says:

    thank you very much. and go on

  168. Valere BERAMBAYE says:

    Hello,
    What I think? I regret sincerely that this is the last lesson of Be Aware.Make sure that I was blessed with your lessons. I think that all the students who study with you will say the same thing. I enjoyed very much to learn Real English conversation with you but now infortunately I can not do anything, thus all the only one thing I can do is all to thank you: Kristin, Mark and Joe.
    GOD BLESS YOU!

    • Aaron says:

      Hi Valere…thanks for all your interesting comments. If you stick around, we’ll try to post another Be Aware lesson or two.

      Also, just so you know, this site is run by Mark and I. Kristin and Joe have nothing to do with it. We don’t know Kristin and Joe, but we sure would like to meet them. They seem like really nice people.

      All the best for now….

      • Valere BERAMBAYE says:

        Dear Aaron,
        Dear Mark,

        I am unforgivable of to have done this mistake. You know, in the beginning of Be Aware lessons, I have listened at several the lecture about Kristin, Joe and AJ Hogue, so I write those words of “goodbye” without paying attention! Could you excuse me for that? I look forward to receive again some Be Aware lessons from you. It will be with pleasure, I’ll work on it. Don’t worry, I will stick around.

        Take care!

  169. Valere BERAMBAYE says:

    Dear Kristin, Mark and Joe,

    I have to listen, listen and a several times the whole conversation like you recommend it to me without the transcript but all the words and expressions I can clearly detain are those you can find below. I think that I will take meeting with my doctor about my ears.

    Let’s go:

    Woman: When I finish school I went to university,….university…science.
    Man: In Melbourne?
    Woman: …cholesterol and the metabolism of cholesterol in the body.
    Man: …?
    Woman: …cholesterol in the blood.
    Man: Right.
    Woman: …we were working…traveled…in London…Finland. Helsinki.
    Man: Wow!.
    Woman: …I did my PhD there.
    Man: Helsinki? In English?
    Woman: …
    Man:…
    Woman:…
    Man:…
    Woman:…
    Man: Do you speak Finnish?
    Woman: Not very well. I can understand a bit, but…English was my mother tongue.
    Man:
    W:
    M:
    W:….train.
    M:
    W:
    M:
    W:…diseases…
    M:
    W: …embryonic.
    M:
    W:
    M:
    W: …normally…quiescent…trying…signals…active state.
    M:
    W:…published…to travel.

    Sorry!

  170. mahtab says:

    hello, at first i want ta say thank you for your very good work. yes, my hindi language has past tense called “bhoot cal”. your lesson is very interesting but i want to learn more about “verb pharas”. particularly, i want a very large list with your explanation. can you help me?

    • Valere BERAMBAYE says:

      Hello,

      It’s a pleasure to know that your are interested by my work. Ask me clearly your question. What exactly do you want to now? What kind of explaination?In my native country we do not have a dictionary in my maternal language, even not the books when I was young nor the library. However, I heard that the Chandians linguists make the research about it but, you know, I left my country since 1983. I am able to conjugate all the verbs in my maternal language, using the three times: past, present and future.
      And you, can you tell me how you translate “I am hungry. I need something to eat” in your language?

      See you soon!

  171. Valere BERAMBAYE says:

    My dear friends,

    Thank you very much for all you do for me. I enjoy with each lesson you send me but when I think that I have just finished to do my last lesson, I am really despaired. In the beginning, I thought that I would have 7 lessons with you but I releaze now that I am wrong. Be that as it may, I Thank you very much Kristin, Joe and Mark for all these lessons. I am not able to talk English immediatly without thinking but I am out of work at that moment and I am not able to pay another set of lessons.
    In the latest page of SECTION A, you ask me where I want to travel? My answer is THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

    Sincerely yours!

  172. Valere BERAMBAYE says:

    Good night,

    QUESTION: DOES YOUR LANGUAGE HAVE A PAST SIMPLE TENSE?

    Chinese and Thaî as well as the Frenchmen and Germans have a written tradition, of the writing to speak about time of the verbs generally and of simple past and the present perfect in particular for both last ones.
    As I said it to you previously, Chad (my native country) is an ancient French colony; thus for all which is official and administrative we use the same structure, the same model but in my language, my mother tongue, the Laka of Bessao as her twin the Ngambaye of Moundou, we have no times of verbs nor modes of verbs to tell stories or evoke our past.
    We have our owns adverbs of frequency which allowed us to limit ourselves in space and in the time. There are Chadians linguists who made the research about this question and continued to do it but I do not know the results of these researches.
    Everyone know that in Africa, we are the champion of the oral tradition, in this way we use three kinds of frequency adverbs which represente: the past; the present and the future. Follow these examples of my country:
    -For the past:
    “Tagné” equals yesterday; “nddo nouna ney”= the day before yesterday; ” ‘bbal ‘g toî ketté ney”= the last year or “‘bbal ‘g gougou ney”, they have the same meaning.
    – For the present:
    ” Bbo go ney”= today; ” mbbal ney”= this year; “‘g nddo ney”= this morning; “commentarney”= this afternoon; “commentar”= the afternoon; “Lô ndoul ney”= this night and “Lô nddoul”= the night.
    – For the future:
    “Bara’g nddo”=tomorrow morning; “bara’g lossolo”=tomorrow afternoon; ” bara’g lô nddoul’g”=tomorrow night; “Nouna”= after tomorrow; “Bbal’g aou ‘ddé= the next year, the year which comes.

    For all these words, the intonation plays an important roll but not really essential for the understanding.

    THAT IS WHY WE SAY IN AFRICA THAT WHEN ” AN ELDERLY MAN DIES, IT IS THE LIBRARY WHICH BURNS”

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    QUESTION: HAVE YOU EVER WORKED IN A RESEARCH INSTITUTE? DO YOU WORK IN ONE NOW?

    No, I never worked in a research institute and I think that I would never do it. I am in possession of literary diploma and have continued with journalism’s studies and had taught French, History and geography so it’s impossible for me to do a peace of research institute.

    In my opinion, those who work in a research institute are the biochemists, the biologists or the mathematicians, those who are the followers of mathematics not the literaries like me.
    If checking the words in the dictionary is also making a research, yes, I work in one at that moment, not in a research institute but in a research library. It’s the only one thing I can do with my present qualification degree. I am in possession of many universitaries diploma but all of them not allow me to work in a research institute.

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    DO YOU EAT WELL? DO YOU EAT ALL THE FOOD GROUPS? ARE YOU VEGETARIAN? DOES YOUR BODY GET ENOUGH NUTRIENTS WITHOUT MEAT? WHERE DO YOU GET PROTEIN?

    Yes, I eat very well. I am not greedy. I do not need of too much eaten to be satisfied but when I am hungry, I eat decently. I am not selective in this domain. The diet, the vegetarianism are luxuries that I cannot allow myself.
    I am from a country which is in process of development where the famine threatens all the time the people then I do not make in a way with the food. On the other hand I hate eating the snail, the oysters and the octopus. Why? I do not know. I never tried them. Perhaps because I am from an enclosed country? Chad does not have access to the sea.

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    DO YOU BELIEVE IN INFINITY? DO YOU THINK THE UNIVERSE IS INFINITE?

    Why not? I am a believer. All my parents are believers. I believe in God. I believe in Jesus our Savior. I also believe in infinity. Perhaps God is the Infinite?
    Life is a succession of the questions: Where is the limit of the universe? Do you know it, you do? We come in this world and we die; sometimes by sickness, by accident or of ageing. Where will we go after the death? We disappear leaving those that we love: parents, children , women, all things went around us. Could we hope to see them again, one day? If you know the answer, my friend , please do not forget to let me know.

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    QUESTION: HAVE EVER HAD A SERIOUS DISEASE? HAVE YOU EVER HAD A RARE DISEASE?

    God thank you! I had no this adversity there but I had several sorts of diseases which did not even require a hospitalization. I remember that I had a hospitalization in the past but owing to my broken arm.
    I do not really see the difference between a serious illness and a rare disease because for me, within the framework of the disease, what is rare doubtless engraves, the medecine will not find easily the antidotes to look after it. The AIDS for example.
    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    HOW DOES THE EDUCATION SYSTEM WORK IN YOUR COUNTRY?

    If you know how the educational system works in France, you also owe knowledge how it works in my native country. At the risk of repeating me, the educational system in the Chad is the certified true copy of that of France because Chad is a French-speaking country and is a former French summer camp.
    When I was in the secondary school in my native country some of my professors of French, mathematical are French or French Canadians. We use the same pounds, the same school documents in the Chad as in France.
    Thus a Chadian who obtained his high school diploma in the Chad can directly go into a French university and vice versa.

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    DO PEOPLE FROM YOUR COUNTRY TRAVEL A LOT?

    Yes. The Chadians travel a lot. We are an enclosed country which has no outlet on the sea. Most of our close neighbours have the same problems with only one difference that certain of them have the railway. What is not the case of the Chad.
    To answer your question, the Chadian travel a lot but they are not big adventurers. They travel but within the framework of the business, the trainings, the formings, the bilateral and international relations. It does not mean as far as we are folded up on ourselves. No. We have diplomatic representation everywhere through worldwide and exploit our own petroleum in the city of DOBA, in the South of the country today.

  173. sileshi d. says:

    Dear Mark,Aaron
    you know i can speak &write english,but some times i feel afraid to use thinking i could be wrong.now,you developed my confidence teaching me very nice.be blessed

  174. salah says:

    well what can i say that was really briliant and i really enjoy it thanks a lot

  175. salah says:

    but also the tips that make facilities
    to understand the hardest part of english grammer so that’s why i definitely want to download this audio to remember it and repeat it in my brain

  176. Andrey says:

    In regard to previous lesson and your question as I remember about appeal to older people, we have two pronouns vs “you” in English. That is instead you – we have ti & vi. Ti – we use to appeal to friends and person of the same age, vi – to grandma, respectable peoples, etc.

    Dear Mark, Aaron, Is’t final lesson? If it’s so, It’s very pity for me because I waited every yours lesson and fill that it help me to develop. I understand that it’s a problem to prepare so lessons in text format also. In this case I will use you audio materials anyway and to repeat this lessons. Thank you very much.
    Kind regards,
    Andrey.

    • Aaron says:

      Hi Andrey, thanks for your feedback. We are happy you liked the lessons. We will be sending you another one in the coming weeks, but don’t expect too many more, as the lessons take time to put together and we are pretty busy with other things.

      All the best for now…Aaron

  177. Andrey says:

    Hi. We have past continuous in Russian language and use it without exclusion. To give understand about sequence of movement (past perfect)- we use some preposition (before, after) in sentence and place words by meaning. Thanks a lot to creator of this site. It’s were comfortable to get so interesting lessons by Internet. I already had so experience to remember prevalent phrases were prepared by teacher. Are you going to prolong this method in your lessons?

  178. ziba says:

    i m so happy to have this site this site really helping me to improve my english i hope this site will sending me lesson 6 .thanks alot waiting for that whish for all of you all the best

  179. yoga says:

    these are sentences I hered before.but i did not remember all.I could read your english conversations ,so i able to speak english.

    thanks for your help

    • ziba says:

      thanks alot i really want to study alot in this site thanks for lesson 5 waiting for next lessons thanks for my teacher in this site waiting for for more lessons

  180. le tu says:

    THank so much for you lessons

  181. wara says:

    As I know, Thai language don’t have a tense as called simple, perfect, past or present. It’s depend on using words plus to show that you did it or just do it or progressing.

  182. guillermo says:

    hi guys,i liked leson #5 a lot!!!thanks,a million.!!!!!!!!!

  183. hager says:

    for me when i listn i can understand what says imaen ican understand the meaning but if i want to talk to response i cant talk pure i should take 2 minutes to create the sentences in my mind then i can talk it
    i hope understand me

    • Aaron says:

      Hi Hager, your problem is completely normal. You cannot expect to speak quickly and automatically unless you immerse yourself in listening and speaking on a regular basis. You need repeated and sustained listening and speaking practice if you want to get faster. So……keep practicing!

  184. hager says:

    good morning
    thank you for send audio file it was vary usful

  185. manar85 says:

    big thanx for a huge efforts , it’s realy wealthy & useful it’s refresh our info coz as you know sometimes we 4got tinny things that’s making us unable to express or have a mistake in grammer that might took the listners to have some confusing .

    thanx again ,your efforts highly appreciated

    Manar

    ynot.1985@hotmail.com to (communicate with only who wants really to practice english ..

  186. mahmoud says:

    thank you for this programe and ihope to improve may english language

  187. Sari Aneta says:

    Thank You for send me the audio file, it work great, it is nice conversation..it really help me..GBU 🙂

  188. Cam Huynh says:

    Hi! Mark and Aaron
    Thanks you so much. this programe is very useful for me to improve my English skill
    Best regards

  189. sara gubran says:

    really I like this lessons and it was very very useful .I hope it is help me to improve my English . in my Arabic language we use the past tense ,
    and thanks .

    my regards.

  190. alora says:

    Thank you very much for all lessons.I hope it is help me to improve my English.

  191. thanh truoc says:

    I am Truoc,I am vietnamese. I am leaving in US now. I have received all your lessons, thanks for everything. I am trying them and I am practising every day . I hope it’s help me to improve my English with your method. thanks again.

  192. kanjana says:

    Thank you very much for all lessons. it’s help me alot to improve my english.

  193. Noura says:

    Thank you very much to all.
    I had fun in all the lesson.

  194. love you and love me says:

    thanks for your lesson.It’s very useful.I understand it.It also helps me improve my listening skill.I hope to have many lessons like this.Thankyou!

  195. viqar says:

    hi thanks for this lessons very much emportant for learners it great thank to teachers who
    make this type of lessons ones again thanks
    viqar. i am indian . working in saudi arabia

  196. hasn says:

    Hello
    Thanks for the valuable lessons and I hope to communicate and connect with you

  197. daphea says:

    Hi. It’s really great for this last lesson. I hope to learn more other lessons.
    Thanks for all lessons that were given. I feel my knowledge is improve. I do study more!
    Best regard.

  198. ALBERT IYADI says:

    Hi! Thanks for your lessons,they are very educative.Hope others will make use of them and improve their writen and spoken English.

  199. Leakhena says:

    Hi,

    I am very happy and thank you all so much for your lessons that are important for me so much. I hope that you will give me more new lesson.

    Thank you again and again.

    Best Regards,
    LEAKHENA

  200. mehdi says:

    Hi! thanks for your lessons. They are useful but not for me, because I’m an English teacher ,and I’ve got my own English school which has got 700 students. I’m so popular in my country ,Iran, because of my English.I published two books. But thanks for your lessons.Maybe I will use them for my students.

  201. tariq says:

    hi,
    i m tariq from pakistan.
    your lesson & your teaching style is wonderfull.
    Like real conversation with people.

    Thanks & Regard.
    Will be seen next time.

    Allah Hafiz
    Good Bye
    TARIQ

  202. Ranjith says:

    Thanks a lot, I need more lesson with audio conversation.

  203. marrosh says:

    thank you a lot
    the lessons are made me a good student because it’s very useful and important in my study

  204. anu says:

    hi
    it’s very useful I am very happy
    thanks

  205. habsi ali says:

    I am be glad with your lesson,i hope you give me many lesson about gramer and audio conversation for downloading. thx’s

  206. adan says:

    I am very very happy to have you lesson on line. I am really enjoying and it’s very useful for me,and I recommend to every body Thanks again. Ahmed

  207. tulip says:

    oh, it’s very useful,

  208. tulip says:

    it’s useful, thanks u very much!

  209. Hassan Shafiee says:

    Hello. thats very useful. thank you very much

  210. al says:

    listening is an art and so it has to be learnt.. yup dats true.. n ur be aware lessons r helpin me a lottt to improve my listening skills…. and the way u have prepared dem are impresive and passive, as dey r understud effortlessly
    u r a gr888 teacher

  211. al says:

    this conservation is nice and clear… wat i liked most is that though the accent is different ..it is audible palatable and understandable.. good and nice

    • adan says:

      I am very very happy to have you lesson on line. I am really enjoying and it’s very useful for me, and Irecommend to every body.

  212. Hats off to you for the nice effort. Your lessons are very helpful. Please inform me if there are any other lessons?
    I am a journalist, working for an English language newspaper in Pakistan. I am often confused about the American and British accents. By the way what accent would you like me to learn and practice?
    Also, please let me know whether or not there are any grammar lessons available as I want to improve my grammar and to learn the intricacies and nuances of English grammar.

    Thanks and regards
    Shahid

  213. jessi says:

    Dear sirs
    I dont tell u thanks for every thing.
    kidest regard

  214. jessi says:

    I am listen to the conversation is nice ,but this man when ask from the student the voice is low . yeah when I listened the conversation is useful for me , but if always give me in past tense is better for me bicuz always when i talked to another people i am talk in simple or present tense.

  215. hendry says:

    Dear Sirs,

    thank I am really enjoying and it’s very useful for me.

    Regards

  216. yaqub says:

    Dear Sirs,

    I am very very happy to have you lesson on line. I am really enjoying and it’s very useful for me. Hopefully i will be able to speak fastly and my will be improve soon, I would like to thank you all for good and hard job.

    Regards

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