Here are the answers. Write your score in the comments section.
1. The Economic and Social Situation
1. Unemployment in Greece is now at a staggering 27%, but behind all the statistics and the ongoing international drama there lies a major human tragedy and an ongoing European Crisis that is ravaging the continent like an unstoppable bushfire.
This is from a report on the situation in Greece. Note that the answer is a noun phrase. It is the subject of the sentence. Do you understand the grammatical terms – “subject – verb – object”?
2. A Reference from a Legal Dictionary
2. According to Black’s Law dictionary, a driver is one employed in conducting or operating a coach, carriage, wagon, or other vehicle, with horses, mules, or other animals, or a bicycle, tricycle, or motor car, though not a street railroad car.
Black’s Law Dictionary defines many common expressions. Note that “one” means ” a person” and “employed in conducting” actually technically means “involved in the activity of steering” rather than the commonly believed “being paid to drive”. “Employed” is a past participle and the answer is a participle phrase.
3. A Government Website
3. The Australian Government Department of Employment is responsible for national policies and programmes that help Australians find and keep employment and work in safe, fair and productive workplaces.
Note that the “Australian Government” is a proper name and requires capital letters and so does the “Department of Employment”. It is a simple noun phrase.
4. The Rights of Employees
4. Employees get different entitlements depending on their type of employment. Find out about these types of employees: Full-time, Part-time, Casual, Shiftworkers, Daily hire and Weekly hire, Probation, Outworkers
Here we have a phrase which starts with a present participle (verb PLUS ing).
The second answer is a noun phrase.
5. A Conversation about Unemployment
There is fifty-six percent unemployment. That is extraordinary.
That is pretty grim.
This is a conversation from the audio below. The answer is a noun phrase. Note that the second speaker agrees with the first, but not in the same terms.
6. A Description of a Problem
6. Unemployment is a malaise which afflicts all ages, all geographic locations; the whole society is affected by it.
This is a noun phrase which makes use of a metaphor to help us see “unemployment” as a disease or mental condition or psychological condition or illness. This metaphor is a stylistic device which we use to see the human side of a technical problem, in this case.
7. The Youth Employment Situation
7. There are youngsters who are unemployable, in the circumstances of the time.
Here we need a relative clause which contains an adjective. “Unemployable” means “cannot be employed“. Do you think young people are unemployable due to lack of education , or lack of job opportunities, or through some fault of their own?
8. Best Practice Tip
8. Check out our books and practice guides to employing staff: Guide to hiring new employees, Guide to hiring new senior employees, An employer’s guide to employing young workers.
“Best practice” is a term which describes the responsibility of people in all spheres of private and commercial life to do the best and safest thing. The answer is a noun phrase. It is a type of “guide” or “guidebook”.
9. Definition of Cottage Industry
9. Outworkers are contractors or employees who perform their work at home or at a place that wouldn’t normally be thought of as a business premises. Outworkers are common in the textile, clothing or footwear industry.
This is a definition of a type of worker who works at home. This type of labour was once called “cottage industry”. Nowadays it might include anybody who works from home. The answer is a noun phrase. Note the link to another lesson in our course: Contract
10. Legal Entitlements of Cottage Industry Workers
10. Outworkers have to get at least the: minimum entitlements in the National Employment Standards and the relevant award rate or the national minimum wage.
Link to another lesson: Proper
11. National Employment Standards
11. National Employment Standards (NES) are the ten minimum entitlements that have to be provided to all employees.
Here is a definition of the National Employment Standards. Note that the entitlements must “be provided/be given” to all employees. The key to the grammar is that it is a verb phrase in passive voice.
12. Definition of Employment
12. Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract, one being the employer and the other being the employee.
This is the wikipedia definition of employment. It is a “subject verb object” (SVO) statement followed by an adverbial phrase.
13. Immigrant Labour Regulations
13. Lawfully operating Australian employers can sponsor and employ skilled workers who have recognised qualifications and skills/or experience in particular occupations required in Australia.
This is a basic “verb in present simple tense” pattern followed by a relative clause.
Expand your Vocabulary by Listening
Let’s listen to audio now. Click the link and follow the transcript.
AUDIO LINK – Economics and Business
Listen to this:
How to listen ..
1. You do not have to understand everything.
And now to a story that has consumed our headlines since 2009. The European debt crisis that effectively began in Greece .. and others would say also in Iceland….
Just take note of words and phrases that you recognise or can work out.
living beyond its means
Focus on the sounds that you recognise.
the Euro Zone
Do not be intimidated by the sounds that you do not recognise.
Ultimately high public sector wages, …
Keep listening now. After the transcript finishes, keep listening … !
widespread tax evasion
See the collocations!
default on its payments
drag the whole system down
Language comes in bundles or parcels, called “phrases”, or collocations!
Learn phrases and collocations!
Not just individual words!
Learn whole phrases!
what is life like on the ground?
Is it mainly young people?
Do you see how to do it?
Keep listening ..
You do not have to understand everything.