Academic Vocabulary in Context – Answers – Proper

1. Business Law

1. According to Australian law a proprietary company is defined as Proprietary Limited (Pty Ltd) or Unlimited Proprietary (Pty). In the former the number of shareholders is limited and so is the liability for company debt in the event of bankruptcy, while in the latter the liability for debt is not limited.

You have to use logic and understand the terms to put the noun phrase in the correct position in this definition.

2. Freedom and Capitalism

2. The right to private property is a fundamental western freedom, but it has not at all times been recognized and some say that property is theft or at least that property should be redistributed fairly because the gap between the rich and the poor is simply too big.

The first noun phrase is a strong collocation and a cherished political right, while the second is a leftist aphorism about the injustice of history. The third phrase is a modal verb phrase which expresses a normative statement. It is a leftist political statement, which expresses a basic leftist belief in fairness and justice through redistribution of wealth.

3. Indigenous Rights

3. Many indigenous people believe that “we do not own the land”, rather “the land owns us” so it is not surprising that their attitude to land and private property is at odds with traditional western capitalist views on the ownership of private property.

This noun phrase is based on the collocation of the “people’s attitude” or the “attitude of the people”. This is the key to inserting it here.

4. Real Estate

4. The real estate agent took out a list of properties for rent and another list of properties for sale and he gave the first list to me and the other one to my father-in-law.

These simple noun phrases represent files in a an office. Notice how “a list” and “another list” and “the first list” and “the other one” are used. These pattern occurs again and again.

Private Property

5. This is private property and trespassers will be prosecuted, so I would advise you to go back the way you came.

This statement might be seen on a sign on a fence or a wall to protect property. The answer is a basic noun phrase.

6. The Law of the Land

6. He has no proprietorial right over the house or land so I would not worry about him turning up out of the blue and making demands. Just call the police, if he does.

Here we see a noun phrase with the adjective from our word family. It is a straightforward legal statement.

7. Etiquette and Manners

7. The proper thing to do would be to notify the owner and make an appointment to visit, rather than barging in and doing as you please.

This is a statement about morals and manners combined with a “thing” idiom.

8. Etiquette and Manners

8. The use of improper language is not illegal but it affects the way people behave towards one and it is advisable, if possible, to try to behave in the proper fashion and not upset anybody or put anybody out in any way.

“The use of improper language is such a strong collocation, it is almost a cliche.

9. Equestrian Sports

9. I don’t have the proper equipment so I shall not be going horse riding although I would dearly love to accompany you if it were possible.

This noun phrase is used in making preparations for any project.

10. The Business World

10. It is difficult to get started in the world of property development if you do not have some capital to invest however it is not impossible and if you are willing to take a risk, you can gamble just like everybody else.

This metaphor describes the dimension of the world of “real estate” or “the property business” or “the property game”.

11. Security

11. He made an improper suggestion and so I asked him to leave and then he became violent so I called security and they handed the matter on to the police. I have not seen nor heard from him since then.

This noun phrase sometimes relates to a lewd or sexual statement or a proposition, like an offer or invitation to have sex.

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