The Particle – a powerful grammatical word

Particles are not as important in English as they are in Thai, Cambodian, Indonesian, Tagalog, in short all the languages of south-east Asia. They also exist in NE Asian languages.

English equivalents are for example:

just
already
really
yet

If you study any of these languages, verbs are generally not conjugated, there are no tenses and so important notions like time and continuity are left up to adverbs and particles.

List of Thai Particles

le
mai
yang

List of Mandarin Particles

ma
guo

List of Malay Particles

sudah

List of Japanese Particles

ka
ni
e
wo

List of Korean Particles

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